"Where the principal effect of IO is to influence an adversary not to take an action, the principal effect of cyber warfare is to deny the enemy freedom of action in cyberspace. Granted, by denying enemies’ freedom of action in cyberspace, we will also influence them; however, influence is not the intended primary effect—denying freedom of action is the intended primary effect.
It may seem that we are arguing to remove EW and computer network operations from IO doctrine. We are not. What we are arguing for is that just as we have now come to recognize cyberspace as a new warfighting domain, so too must we recognize that it is equal to the other warfighting domains and doctrine should reflect such.
Now is the time to update our doctrine to establish fundamental cyber warfare principles that guide employment of EW and computer network operations forces in support of our national objectives."
General Keith Alexander
Director, National Security Agency
Commander, U.S. Cyber Command
Warfighting in Cyberspace
NOTE: The Navy is updating its doctrine through its Information Dominance Roadmaps.